What are Traction Batteries (Explained)

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Traction batteries are specific in that they are specially developed to provide certain amounts of electricity for a longer period of time. What characterizes them best is a fairly long lifespan, vibration resistance and a very short charging time.

In order to understand why it is extremely important not to skimp on the quality of traction batteries, we will introduce you to their purpose, the composition that enables their high performance, as well as other characteristics of this type of batteries.

What is the purpose of traction batteries?

As they are extremely large capacity, traction batteries provide electricity to machines and industrial vehicles such as: electric forklifts, electric vehicles and boats, large industrial cleaning machines, electric tractors, airport vehicles, golf vehicles, work platforms at height, electric wheelchairs trolley, etc.

Traction batteries are used for very harsh conditions, which often means working under high load and extremely high or low temperatures. They are easy to maintain for the simple reason that they have very low water consumption.

They are characterized by high efficiency and, according to many, represent an ideal, reliable, and above all, practical battery for electric vehicles.

The composition of traction batteries that provides long-lasting energy

Traction batteries consist of several 2- volt cells. A cell is a basic electrochemical unit that produces electricity in a battery. It includes positive and negative plates, electrolytes, separators and housings. The lead battery, which has a 12V hood, contains six cells.

Namely, when it comes to the traction battery, those cells are connected in series, which means that a much higher voltage is obtained. For example, a traction battery that has 24 volts has 12 cells, a 48 volt battery consists of 24 cells, an 80 volt battery has 40, and so on.

In order to recharge the battery, it is necessary for the cell voltage to be increased to above 2 volts from the external voltage source.

Positive and negative plates

There are positive and negative plates inside the traction battery cell. There is always one negative board more than a positive one. They are separated from each other by a micro porous separator to avoid mutual contact and short circuit.

The positive plate consists of a plate plate and a number of lead rods which are together protected by a porous material which surrounds the plate like a casing. The space between the plates is filled with lead dioxide paste.

The negative plate is a network of pure lead. These plates are combined with electrolyte, a mixture of sulfuric acid and water, and their exact composition depends on the manufacturer, which contributes to the final quality of the cell.

The design of traction batteries affects functionality

What is of great importance for the long-term and smooth operation of these batteries is precisely their design. In order for everything to function perfectly, there are several key aspects of the construction that will enable the traction battery to function in the best possible way.

When it comes to the design of a 2-volt traction battery, positive plates can be both flat and tubular constructions. For example, for one type of traction battery, only flat versions of the plate are suitable due to the need to maintain uniform compression of the fiberglass bed used for the separator.

A tubular traction battery with positive plate constructions generally gives a longer cycle life than flat plate designs. The reason for this is that the tube construction ensures that the active, positive material adheres firmly to the spine of the conductive lead alloy during the deep discharge cycle.

The life of a traction battery is defined by the number of standard deep discharge cycles it can perform until it drops to 80% of nominal capacity.

Use of traction batteries in electric cars

An electric vehicle that runs on 100% electric drive is an increasingly common occurrence in the world. As a result, the demand for quality, safer, and yet more affordable batteries is growing.

Electric cars use a wide variety of batteries from standard, car batteries, because a lot of energy is needed for it to function on the road. Traction batteries for such vehicles are made to give maximum power for their total weight.

An electric car battery is a package of cells arranged in modules that contain electricity that is used when the vehicle performs its mechanical functions, such as acceleration.

Depending on the manufacturer and battery technology, the battery of an electric vehicle will be designed in several ways, with different shape, capacity, number of cells.

An interesting fact, when it comes to the battery in an electric vehicle, is that the quality of the ratio of top driving performance at a very low price improves and increases from year to year.

Recycling as an ideal solution for old traction batteries

Today’s electromobility consumes large amounts of traction batteries, especially high-performance lithium-ion batteries. These batteries contain valuable raw materials and should not be disposed of as waste at the end of their life.

Battery recycling requires closed material loops and a logistics solution that can grow with an increasing number of waste batteries from more and more electric vehicles. The research project “Recycling of car batteries 2020” launched earlier this year with funding from the European Union by “EIT RawMaterials”, is intended to identify useful ways of recycling that are environmentally friendly and economically sustainable.

The overall goal is to improve the recycling chain of traction batteries in Europe as well as the ability to utilize raw, valuable materials that can be obtained from waste streams.

Battery quality is the essence of longevity and cost-effectiveness

In order to ensure the long life of your electric vehicle, it is very important to choose the highest quality traction battery. In this way, you have saved yourself time and money in the long run, and you have gained great strength and energy for your vehicle.

Choose reliable and quality batteries that are world market leaders to enable your electric vehicle to reach its peak in performance and efficiency!

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